Maxwell Karger

Portrait Maxwell KargerProduttore - Stati Uniti
Nato 1879 a Cincinnati, Ohio, US
Morto 4º Maggio 1922 a Ft. Wayne, Indiana, US

Maxwell Karger é nato nel 1879 Era un Produttore americano, noto per i suoi film Garments of Truth (1921), Out of the Fog (1919), La lanterna rossa (1919),sposato Maxwell Karger è morto li May 4, 1922 in Ft. Wayne, Indiana, US.
Biografia in Tedesco (in Tedesco): Maxwell Karger
«(...) The public didn't know the name of Max Karger. But he was, in those days, the man behind the gun at the Metro. He was the executive in charge of production. All those brilliant young people came to him, he worked out the endless details of their big success, he figured and he planned with, and for them. Everybody went to Max for everything.
Karger died of heart failure in a Pullman car on his way back to the Metro studio from a business trip east.(...)» [Adela Rogers St. Johns, The Haunted Studio, Photoplay Magazine, December 1927, pg 96]

He is another „mystery man“ in the history of American silent movies, his premature death probably obscured a critical recognition of his merits for the cinema of the years 1916 – 1922. Even Liam O'Leary disqualifies him as "Publicity Man for Metro" without giving him proper credit. [Liam O'Leary, op. cit pg 60]
Maxwell (Max) Karger was born in Ohio [Charles D. Fox / Milton L. Silver, Who 's who on the Screen, Ross Pub. Co., New York, 1920, pg 390] in the turn of the year 1878/79, some sources indicate December 31, 1878 [Hans J. Wollstein, All Movie Guide] as date of birth. Nothing is known about his parents, probably immigrants from Germany. As per the few indications we have bout his early years, Karger became a pupil of Simon E. Jacobsohn (1839-1902) at the Chicago Conservatory [Chicago Symphony Orchestra Program Notes 1894-1895, N° 8] and studies violin. In the early Nineties Max Karger traveled to Europe to study with one of the most prominent violinist of the time, Joseph Joachim (1831-1907).
Upon his return 1897 to America, Karger starts a career as violinist and immediately gets excellent reviews. The Daily Mail and Empire, Toronto, comments "(...) Max Karger, the famous German violinist, has no equal on this continent (...)" [Daily Mail and Empire, Toronto, October 28, 1897]. On November 7, 1897, he plays for the first time at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York. “(...) Max Karger, the violinist, last night made his first public appearance in America. He is a young man. His playing showed a great taste, his technique was generally fine, but his playing seemed to lack that passion which the violin is so capable of expressing. He was exact but cold. The audience recalled him several times (...)" [The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, November 8, 1897]. Not less favorable was the review by the Kansas City Journal: “New York, Nov 7. - The first appearance in America of a Chicago violinist to-night marked the opening popular concert of the Metropolitan opera house winter series. Max Karger, after studying with a local teacher in Chicago, went abroad four years ago, at the age of 16, to perfect himself. His first appearance in America since his return, occurred to-night in a concert at which Madame Sembrich was the soloist. Mr. Karger's selections were first movement of concerto, Tschaikowsky; madrigal, Simonetti; molto perpetuoso, Reis. Mr. Karger's facility is great and his work is evidence of much temperament and no little tenderness. he received several recalls.” [The Kansas City Journal, November 8, 1897]
Soon young Max Karger also made his entry into the local society in New York, and his name can be found in the Society Notes of the New York Times: “A musicale was given on a recent evening at the residence of Mrs. Henry L. Liebmann, 125 East Eightieth Street. Miss Florence Terrek, Miss Estelle Liebling, Mr. Hans Kronold, Messrs. Max and Leonard Liebling and Mr. Henri Eru (??) were among the performers. The rooms were decorated with palms and chrysanthemums, and some eighty or ninety guests were present, among them Misses Jessie Shay, Josephine Hartman, and Messrs. Max Karger, Bernard Sinsheimer, Franz Listemann, Dorea, Fischl, and J.J. Lyons.” [The New York Times, November 13, 1898] In 1899 he performs as First violinist and Concertmaster in the Summer Orchestral Concertos of Franz Kaltenborn's Orchestra - “(...) [Franz Kaltenborn, 1865-1946, Violinist and Conductor - The New York Times, July 2, 1899] The Strauss waltzes and the Tschaikowski's symphony pleased the audience, calling fourth hearty applause. The soloist of the evening was Max Karger, the concert master.” [The New York Times, August 9, 1899] Among his performances are pieces of modern composers, and especially also of Henryk Wieniawski “(...) Max Karger played a 'Faust' fantasy by H. Wieniawski (...) and young Mr. Karger rendered divers perpetual motions and romance melodies on his instrument with ample skill and facility, and the promise occasionally of better and more serious work (...) “ [The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, May 18, 1899]
“Pupils accepted” is printed in a publicity ad by Max Karger in 1901, and in fact Max Karger was giving lessons at the Associate School of Music: "(...) The Associate School of Music has been in existence some years at the Depew building, 489 Fifth avenue, where Mr. Hilbert Wilber Greene has conducted his vocal work (...) and Mr. Max Karger his violin school. (...) Mr. Max Karger has recently only returned to America from the greatest of European masters on the volin, [Joseph] Joachim [1831-1907], and immediately took a leading position among violinists." [The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, September 9, 1900] Among his pupils is a certain "Miss Cranbrook, Violin Teacher, 778 Prospect Place, Pupil of Max Karger, will take a few pupils. Terms moderate. Highest references" [The Brooklyn Daily Eagle), October 31, 1901]
Shortly after 1900 Max Karger's career as Violinist must have ended abruptly, no records are re-traceable after 1901, and Karger is only mentioned as 'a musician from Chicago' in the divorce case of Rupert Hughes 1903 at the Supreme Court of New York. “(...) the suit of Rupert Hughes, a musical critic, playwright and author, against his wife, Agnes Wheeler Hughes (...) The correspondents named are (...) Max Karger, a musician of Chicago (...) The witness (Maude Wilkinson) said she knew Max Karger and said he called on Mrs. Hughes, at the Seventy-eight street apartment and often took her violets. "He called one evening when Hughes was out and he and Mrs. Hughes went to the theatre together. Mrs, Hughes told me not to tell her husband." She said that Mrs. Hughes was entertaining a friend one day when Karger called. The three had whiskey together in the bedroom (...)” [The Evening Telegraph, New York, October 8, 1903, pg 14]
Around 1907 M.J. Karger , the manager's name of the Empire Theatre in Des Moines, can be found in several issues of the New York Clipper. [Issues between February 16, 1907 and January 10, 1910 on file] This was most probably another Karger of whom we ignore further details except the birth of a daughter. Early in the Tens, Maxwell Karger met Vaudeville actress Ann Conley of the "Ann & Effie Conley Sisters" – Ann became his wife, her sister Effie Conley married Fred Warren [Fred Warren, vaudeville actor, 1860-1940. Warren also played in some films produced by Karger and functioned at least in three films as assistant director.]. Ann and Maxwell Karger's son, Fred, was born on February 13, 1916, and will be known as composer and musician [Fred Karger died in Santa Monica on August 5, 1979]. While Effie Conley-Warren also had a short career as actress in the silents, there is no evidence of Ann Conley-Karger continuing her acting activity after her marriage.
What exactly was Karger's activity in those years until 1914, we do not know. Even the “official” biography by Charles D. Fox and Milton L. Silver in “Who 's who on the Screen” remains more than diffusive about those years: “(...) a violinist and chose journalism for a career. However, he drifted from the newspaper field and became a drygoods clerk, advertising director for a big department store, floorwalker, leader of an orchestra, concert player and finally a motion picture impresario. He played first violin with the Philharmonic and Metropolitan orchestra for seven years. After a romantic business and newspaper career he came to New York and was one of the organizers of Metro (...)” [Charles D. Fox / Milton L. Silver, Who 's who on the Screen, Ross Pub. Co., New York, 1920, pg 390]


The year 1914 marks Karger's return to “public life”. He becomes active again as musician in at least two concertos by the end of the year: on October 18 “The Educational Music Society, founded by Leo Levy, will open tonight, at 8:15, its second season in the Strauss Auditorium of the Educational Alliance (...) Maximilian Pilzer, 1st violin; Max Karger, 2nd violin; Jacob Altschuler, viola; Modest Altschuler, cello; Leo Levy, piano.” [New York Tribune, October 18, 1914] and on November 22 "At the Educational Alliance concert tonight Maximilian Pilzer, first violin; Max Karger, second violin ..." [The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, November 22, 1914] Even more important is the note in The New York Dramatic Mirror, dated July 22, 1914: “The B.A. Rolfe Photo-Play, Inc., with principal office at 1493 Broadway, New York city and capitalized at $50願, was incorporated with the Secretary of State last week, for the purpose of conducting a general motion picture and photoplay business, also to deal in plays and sketches. The directors are Benjamin A. Rolfe, Charles B. Maddock, Max Karger, 214 West 110th Street, New York city.” [The New York Dramatic Mirror, July 22, 1914, see also note in The New York Tribune, July 16, 1914]
B. A. (Benjamin Albert) Rolfe [October 24, 1879 in Brasher, New York - April 23, 1956 in Walpole, Massachusetts] was a well know “white” Jazz musician in his time and was nicknamed "The Boy Trumpet Wonder". It is not known how Max Karger met Rolfe, in any case Karger's managerial talents convinced Rolfe to partner with him in this field of entertainment, where both were newcomers. Nothing is known about C. B. Maddox, the third co-founder of the company. The new production entity enters in a distribution agreement with Al Lichtman's Alco Film Corporation [Alco Film Company, later named Alco Film Corporation, was announced on July 29, 1914 in The New York Dramatic Mirror as a nationwide distribution platform for pictures of “quality better than the majority” and was teamed to challenge the distribution concept of Paramount. Among the first production companies to form the distribution entity were the All Star Company, the California Motion Picture Corporation, the Popular Plays and Players, the Excelsior Feature Company, the Favorite Player's Company, and the Atsco Supply Corporation [a distribution company]. The Tiffany Motion Picture Corporation and B.A. Rolfe Photo Play Company joined later, The Life Photo Film Corporation followed early November 1914. (cf. THE NIGHTINGALE and the Beginnings of the Alco Film Corporation, by Steven Phipps, Film History Vol. 4, Taylor & Francis, 1990, pg 323ff)], later with Louis B. Meyer's Metro Pictures Corporation and the news are made public in the First of August edition of The New York Clipper: “B. A. Rolfe enters the M. P. Field - B.A.Rolfe is the latest vaudeville producer to enter the motion picture field. A company to be known as the B.A. Rolfe Photoplays Co. was incorporated last week at Albany for $50願. B.A. Rolfe, Charles B. Maddock and Max Karger are the directors named in the papers. The main office will be in New York City.” [The New York Clipper, August 1, 1914, pg 12]
Al Lichtman's Alco Film Corporation had only a very short life as a company, and in the beginning of the year 1915 Alco was closed down and filed for bankruptcy. By that time, the Rolfe company had two of their productions distributed through Alco [Alco distributed a total of 10 movies as per the American Film Institute Catalogue. IMDb lists a total of 13 productions.], “Rip van Winkle” and “The Three of Us” . In order to preserve their assets of the bankrupt company, Al Lichtman [Alexander “Al” Lichtman, (April 9, 1885 in Monok, Hungary – February 20, 1958 in Los Angeles), originally a burlesque house usher, joined 1912 Famous Players as a field manager. In later years he worked for United Artists, MGM and 20th Century Fox. In 1958 Lichtman produced Edward Dmytryk's “The Young Lions”.], William Sievers, Richard Rowland and James B. Clark formed the new company Metro Pictures Corporation. In 1915 the Metro Pictures Corporation also erected a large studio which was located atop an office building at 3 West 61st Street, with a splendid view overlooking New York's Central Park. The stage area had a surface of 290 x 92 feet, big enough for several productions to shoot simultaneously. The offices and and dressing rooms occupied the other floors. The Metro Studio soon became the operational base for the Rolfe company with Maxwell Karger in charge of the operations. In May 1915 Rolfe announced several productions for Metro [cf NY Clipper May 6, 1915] and in November the trades announced a new production with Mabel Taliaferro [Mabel Taliaferro, Actress, 1887-1979]“(...) The call for Miss Taliaferro's services was first suggested by a scenario that Max Karger, general manager of the Rolfe forces, received (...)” [The New York Clipper, Sep 27, pg 41]
It is unknown, when and how June Mathis met Maxwell Karger. June claimed she had participated in a scenario contest and, even not winning the contest, she got a contract for her first scripts. Scenario contests were quite popular those years, and there are records of a contest organized by the Philadeplhia Evening Ledger in 1916 [Evening Ledger, Philadelphia, July 1, 1916] with the jurors Max Karger, Director general of the Metro, Stanley V. Mastbaum [Stanley W. Mastbaum, Exhibitor, 1879-1918], President Stanley Booking Company and The Photoplay Editor of the Evening Ledger. Even as the Copyright Index [Copyright LP.7197, December 11, 1915] gives credit to Frank Dazey [Frank Mitchell Dazey, 1892-1970] as author of “The House of Tears”, June Mathis referred to this as her first screenplay, as per other sources June Mathis was the author of the adaptation of “The Final Judgment”, that was released two month earlier. Both pictures were directed by Edwin Carewe [Edwin Carewe, Director, 1883-1940], produced by Rolfe Production for Metro and they mark the beginning of a long-term cooperation between Maxwell Karger and June Mathis. Later on Mrs. Mathis was to become the head of Metro's Scenario Department.
It seems that Maxwell Karger's position as general manager and head of production was quite firm in the merry-go-round of the various producing companies in the Metro compound. He was more than just an studio executive, and over the coming years Max not only had his input in the music arrangement for the screenings, but also contributed as a scenario writer. Karger's name is mentioned in set-up for the orchestration for the Francis X. Bushman – Beverly Bayne production of “Romeo and Juliet” (1916) and also in Metro's effort to provide the cinemas with adequate musical programs to accompany their features:

Metro's Musical Scores

B.A. Rolfe and Maxwell Karger. Two Famous Musicians are co-operating with Music Publisher to Perfect Accompaniment.
Appreciating the importance of the introduction of appropriate music to accompany feature film production it is difficult to find in the producing end of motion pictures so eminently fitted to pass on music as B.A. Rolfe, president of Rolfe Photoplays, Inc., and Maxwell Karger, general manager of the same concern. Both are accomplished musicians of the highest order and both men are devoting considerable time just now in arranging and selecting artistic musical programs to accompany the elaborate Metro feature pictures at the Rolfe studios. In this work they act in a advisory capacity with S.M. Berg of the staff of G. Schirmer, Inc., music publishers, who provide a musical program for all Metro pictures to exhibitors. Mr. Berg, one of the ablest musicians in the country, is an expert who is devoting his talents to the study of motion pictures with a view of writing a musical program which shall exactly fit pictures in every particular. His programs not only include excerpts from the classics, but the best American composers are called upon to write original music suited to the individual picture.
Both Mr. Rolfe and Mr. Karger can qualify as experts in matters musical, both of them, before entering the motion picture industry having been wonderfully successful musicians. Before entering the motion picture field Mr. Rolfe staged and managed several big music productions that were innovations in vaudeville, including "Ye Colonial Septette," "The Pianophiends," "The Bride Shop" and "The Military Octette." Incidentally, Mr. Rolfe is one of America's greatest cornet soloists.
Mr. Karger entered the amusement field as a musician. Although the fact is not generally known among the fellows in the motion picture industry, Mr. Karger was concert master of the Russian Symphony orchestra and for seven years he was first violinist at the Metropolitan Opera House. He toured this country and many foreign lands with Mme. Sembrich and Jean de Reska.” [Motography, October 30, 1915, pg 889]

One of the few known stills of Maxwell Karger has been taken in May 10, 1916, as a guest of James V. Cleary at Supper Dance at Biltmore Hotel [The Binghamton Press, May 13, 1916] in New York. Karger is number four from right in the top row. Among the other guests are actress Mabel Taliaferro (second row n° 5 seated), actor Julian Eltinge (third row standing n° three) and Mrs. Karger (second row seated at left). 1916 is also the birth-year of Maxwell and Ann's only son, Fred Karger. On Christmas 1916 “«(...) Maxwell Karger, general Manager of the Rolfe and Columbia studios, hiked away to the Maine woods (...)” [The Moving Picture World, January 13, 1917, pg 210]


Early 1917 Maxwell Karger as General Manager of the Rolfe and Columbia studios announced [The Auburn Citizen, January 6, 1917] that Ethel Barrymore will work for Metro. This was probably just a publicity campaign, as Metro had already distributed several productions with the actress of great reputation. Another publicity act was probably the announcement in February [The New York Clipper, February 14, 1917] 1917: Among the volunteers to enlist we find not only director William Christy Cabanne, but also Richard A. Rowland, president of Metro Film Corporation and their General Manager, Maxwell Karger...
More publicity for the Metro productions should be generated with the engagement of another silent diva of the period: in March 1917, Emily Stevens [Emily Stevens, 1882-1928, noted New York theater actress] signs contract for “Four Metro Features (...) will be paid $75願 for appearing in four big picture plays which will be released by Metro Pictures Corporation. (...) The pictures will be made under the supervision of B.A. Rolfe, president of Rolfe Photoplays, Inc., and Maxwell Karger, general manager of the Rolfe and Columbia studios. An unusual feature of the important deal by which Miss Stevens is transferred from the speaking stage to the screen is that simultaneously with the release of her first production, the story of the play will appear in fiction form in a big magazine with illustrations taken from the production. Such a cooperative arrangement between motion picture producer and magazine editor never before has been carried out, and the result will be watched with keen interest. The first production in which Miss Stevens is to appear will be "Opportunity," by Edgar Franklyn. On the release date of the play the story will be published in Munsey's magazine. George D. Baker, one of the greatest of motion picture directors, will direct Miss Stevens. Negotiations for the screening of "Opportunity" were made by Mr. Rolfe and Mr. Karger, with Robert H. Davis of the Frank A. Munsey Company.” [The Motion Picture World, March 31, 1917, pg 2081] The film then was released on July 1, 1918, directed by John H. Collins, starring Viola Dana and not Emily Stevens.
In May 1917 Maxwell Karger was to start his own production company within the Metro Pictures Corporation: "Karger to start Co. - Maxwell Karger, who has been general manager of the B.A. Rolfe Film Producing Company, will shortly sever his connection with that concern and branch out as the head of a special feature film concern organized by the Metro Pictures Corp. The new company will only produced special big features running from eight to ten reels in length. The new corporation is in the process of organization and, as soon as the details are completed, will commence work on a studio for the manufacture of their productions. The studio will most likely be located in the Fort Lee, N.J. district. In the future, B.A. Rolfe will be in full charge of the productions of the Rolfe and Columbia film producing companies and their studios” [The New York Clipper, May 23, 1917, pg 34]
What was announced as Karger's company then became Metro's Quality Studio as per this publication from June 1917: "Metro shifts its Directors and Stars - Quality Studio active - The Metro Pictures Corporation announced last week as sweeping shift of its directors and players from one studio to another. - Maxwell Karger has been placed in charge of the Quality studio. Dave Thompson will be his assistant. The first picture to be produced by them will be "A Sleeping Memory" the famous story by E. Phillips Oppenheim, which was picturized by Albert Shelby Le Vino. William H. Stevens will be technical director. - Francis X, Bushman and Beverly Bayne will soon be shifted to the Quality studio for the making of forthcoming productions. Edwin Carewe will be their director. - Miss Stevens, who was the first star selected for the Metro special productions, is still working in "The Slacker" which, it is reported, will soon be completed and released.” [The New York Clipper, June 20, 1917] “A Sleeping Memory” was released on October 15, 1917.


In February 1918 Maxwell Karger promotes another star for the Metro Corporation: "Metro proposes to make Mr. Lytell's pictures a part of their All Star Movie features. Each production will have an all star cast to support the new star and will be under the personal supervision of Maxwell Karger, manager of productions of Metro's Eastern studios ..." [The Albany Evening Journal, February 26, 1918] In the same time Karger was in charge for the productions of one of Metro's “difficult” stars, Alla Nazimova. In the circle around the extravagant actress we would then also find June Mathis, Rudolph Valentino, Jane Acker and Natasha Rambova. Another notable talent [The Binghamton Press, September 27, 1918: "... has engaged the well known portrait painter D. Anthony Tauszky ..."] hired at that time by Maxwell Karger was the American painter David Anthony Tauszky [David Anthony Tauszky, 1878-1972], who would design among others the intertitles for Nazimova's “Eye for Eye” or Ingram's “Shore Acres”.
In this extremely busy year – Karger also published a novel “Wilson or the Kaiser” [Wilson or the Kaiser ?, a novel of to-day, by Maxwell Kaiser, Janet Priest, 1918, Terver Brothers Stationary Company, New York] to be turned into a film and his filmography counted not less than thirty-three productions supervised by him for the year 1918 – the Metro Corporation decided to leave New York for Hollywood, and the announcement was made in September: "Metro to move Studio - Metro will, as soon as is expedient, open a studio in Hollywood. Maxwell Karger will continue to supervise the Metro features. The stars slated for the West Coast studio are Harold Lockwood, Emmy Wehlen, Viola Dana, Nazimova and Hale Hamilton. Mae Alliston and Bert Lytell are alredy on the Coast. The executive offices will remain here." [The New York Clipper, September 25, 1918]
1918 - October: «Metro removes Forces to West Coast - retains one New York Studio - In accordance with a decision arrived at several weeks ago, to combine the bulk of their film making activities to the west coast hereafter, the Metro Pictures Corporation started to remove its stars and studios to Los Angeles this week. - The Metro studio at Hollywood, which the concern has maintained for the past two or three years, has been greatly enlarged and new equipment has been added to meet the increased demands of the organization. - Maxwell Karger, formerly director in charge in the East, will supervise the coast productions. His chief assistants will be George Baker and A.S. Le Vino. - The New York studio will be retained for the present at least. The executive offices will also remain in New York.» [The New York Clipper, October 9, 1918]


1919 - January: «Ray Smallwood, chief of Metro's photographic department, has arrived in California from New York, and, under the direction of Maxwell Karger, director general, has assumed charge of all camera and laboratory work at the company's new Hollywood plant.» [The New York Clipper, January 8, 1919] - When there was the Convention of Metro Film Company Stockholders at the Hotel Astor, Maxwell Karger was confirmed as member of the directorate. [The New York Clipper, January 22, 1919]
1919 - August: «Karger takes Control - Maxwell Karger has assumed complete control of all departments of Screen Classics Incorporated, and will personally supervise all details of production.» [The New York Clipper, August 6, 1919]– And let us not forget the sport news: «Maxwell Karger's Metro baseball team last week triumphed in California over the nine from the Brunton Studio by a score of 11 to 6. The Metro Studio's next game will be with the Tom Ince Studio team.» [The New York Clipper, August 20, 1919]
1919 - September: «Is it a Gift or a Privilege ? - So much comment has been aroused by the success with which Maxwell Karger selected the actresses who portray the beauty mannequins in "Lombardi, Ltd.," that he is now being dubbed a second F. Ziegfeld. "Picking them like that is a gift," said a friend of his recently, after he had witnessed a scene in the smart Fifth Avenue shop. "Gift nothing," replied Mr. Karger, "it's a privilege."» [New York Tribune, September 21, 1919]
1919 - November 5: This date marks the wedding of Rudolph Valentino and actress Jean Acker at the home [was on site of 5051 Hollywood Blvd, NW corner at Mariposa Ave] of Joseph Engel, Metro's treasurer, «(...) Metro's general manager, Maxwell Karger, served as best man (...)» [Emily Wortis Leider, Dark Lover, The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino, pg 103]
1919 - December: «Rich goes with Metro - H. Thompson Rich has resigned from the Vitagraph scenario staff, where he had been for a year, to accept a position with the Metro Film Corporation. He left for the Coast last week, where he will work under the direction of Maxwell Karger.» [The New York Clipper, December 10, 1919[ - «Ripley directing for Metro - Arthur D. Ripley has been added to Maxwell Karger's directorial staff at the new Metro Studios in Hollywood. He will direct Bert Lytell in the production , Alias Jimmy Valentine» [The New York Clipper, December 17, 1919]
1919 – December 16: Maxwell Karger introduces Cameraman John F. Seitz to Rex Ingram on the production of Shore Acres – Seitz remembered: «After all this I now feel it was the great credit of Maxwell Karger, then General Manager of Metro, to let the brash young Irishman continue the picture under a different set up instead of calling the whole thing off and fire him. » [John F. Seitz, letter to Kevin Brownlow, dated January 16, 1963 ]


In January 1920 complete control of Metro Pictures Corporation was acquired by Marcus Loew, a powerful New York theater owner who needed to secure a steady supply of features for his growing exhibition empire. (...) [Richard Koszarski, An Evening's Entertainment, 1990, pg 80-82] Only a month later, Metro president Richard A. Rowland arrived in New York after conducting Loew around the Western Coast facilities. He announced an immediate expansion of operations on both coasts: a million dollars for new construction at the California studio, and even more for a lavish new studio in the East. (...) Maxwell Karger would be in charge of production, and M. P. Staulcup, "supervisor of art interiors," had already arrived in New York to prepare the 61st Street stages. [“Metro to build Big Studios in the East; To get more Stars and Scenarists," Moving Picture World, February 28, 1920, 1447]
1920 - February "Maxwell Karger is production manager of Metro Pictures, Richard A. Rowland is president of the corporation"» [The New York Clipper, February 4, 1920] Maxwell Karger moves back to New York to supervise Eastern productions of Metro in the new Studio in New York.
1920 - June: «Metro's production of "The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse" will be filmed in Hollywood under the supervision of Maxwell Karger» [New York Clipper, June 9, 1920, pg 34] (...) According to a 1923 interview, Valentino learned that Metro was about to produce The Four Horsemen and presented himself to Maxwell Karger at the New York studio (Karger had been best man at Valentino's ill-fated wedding to Jean Acker the year before. Karger then introduced Valentino to Mathis, who apparently cast him on the spot. [Gladys Hall and Adele Fletcher, "We discover who discovered Valentino," Motion Picture Magazine June 1923, 93; Emily Leider, Dark Lover, The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2003), 112]
1920 - June: «Lois Zellner has left Hollywood to join her husband. Mr. and Mrs. Zellner will both be on Maxwell Karger's Eastern scenario staff» [New York Clipper, June 9, 1920, pg 34]
1920 July: «George W. Terwilliger has been selected by Maxwell Karger of Metro to direct "The Misleading Lady," which will go into production within the next two weeks.» [The New York Clipper, July 21, 1920]]
1920 - September five Bert Lytell pictures which will bear the name of "Maxwell Karger Productions" - Arthur Zellner as production assistant to Karger and to write the continuities for the Bert Lytell subjects and have charge of all the other scenarios of production which Metro may make in the Eastern studios" [New York Clipper, September 22, 1920].


Even though Karger remained to supervise eastern production, activity began to run down as soon as Mathis was out the door. Nothing more was heard of the £2 million Long Island studio, and by March 1921 Metro had abandoned New York for the second time ["Back to Coast", Wid's Daily, March 15, 1921, I]. On March 6, 1921, Karger was among the special guests in the opening screening of Ingram's The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse at the Lyric in New York [Wid's Daily, March 8, 1921, pg 2] .
1921 Shooting in Hollywood Bert Lytell movie The Idle Rich: Maxwell Karger was getting his dynamos into action at film studios in Hollywood on a group of extras who appear in Bert Lytell's newest picture, Junk [“Junk” was the working title for “The Idle Rich”]. «It was a torrid day and the extras were not displaying any extra enthusiasm about their work, So Mr. Karger exploded dynamically: "Work, my friends, is the lot of man! Man was sent into this world to earn his living by sweat of his brow, You didn't find Adam walking about the Garden of Eden with his hands in his pockets!"» [The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, New York, July 12, 1921, pg 8]


Even in the last moments, Maxwell Karger and June Mathis had very much in common: Karger found a sudden death on a railway journey to the Coast, back from New York. He was found dead at the Fort Wayne station on May 4, 1922. He is buried in the same crypt at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery as June Mathis and Rudolph Valentino

Maxwell Karger Filmografia
1922: [05.20] Hate (Direttore), con Alice Lake, Conrad Nagel, Harry S. Northrup,
1922: [04.03] Kisses (Direttore), con Alice Lake, Harry Myers, Edward Connelly,
1922: [02.06] The Golden Gift (Direttore), con Alice Lake, John Bowers, Harriett Hammond,
1921: [12.26] The Idle Rich (Direttore), con Bert Lytell, Virginia Valli, John Davidson,
1921: [12/12] A Hole in the Wall (Direttore), con Alice Lake, Allan Forrest, Frank Brownlee,
1921: [10.05] Garments of Truth (Produttore: (--??--)), Regia George D. Baker, con Gareth Hughes, Ethel Grandin, John Steppling,
1921: [09.05] A Trip to Paradise (Direttore), con Bert Lytell, Virginia Valli, Brinsley Shaw,
1921: [07.04] The Man who (Produttore), con Bert Lytell, Lucy Cotton, Virginia Valli,
1921: [06.20] Fine Feathers (Produttore), Regia Fred Sittenham, con Eugene Pallette, Claire Whitney, Thomas W. Ross,
1921: [03.28] Puppets of Fate (Produttore), Regia Dallas M. Fitzgerald, con Viola Dana, Francis McDonald, Jackie Saunders,
1921: [04.11] A Message from Mars (Direttore), con Bert Lytell, , Maud Milton,
1920: [12.20] The Misleading Lady (Produttore), Regia George Irving, George W. Terwilliger, con Bert Lytell, Lucy Cotton, Frank Currier,
1920: [11.29] Polly with a past (Produttore), Regia Leander de Cordova, con Ina Claire, Ralph Graves, ,
1920: [11.01] The Fatal Hour (Produttore), Regia George W. Terwilliger, con Thomas W. Ross, Wilfred Lytell, Frank Conlan,
1920: [09.06] Love, Honor & Obey (Produttore), Regia Leander de Cordova, con Wilda Bennett, Claire Whitney, Henry Harmon,
1920: [09.07] The Hope (Produttore), Regia Herbert Blaché, con Jack Mulhall, Marguerite de la Motte, Ruth Stonehouse,
1920: [] Clothes (Produttore), Regia Fred Sittenham, con Olive Tell, Crauford Kent, Cyril Chadwick,
1920: [07/00] The Best of Luck (Produttore), Regia Ray C. Smallwood, con Kathryn Adams, Jack Holt, Lila Leslie,
1920: [06/07] The Cheater (Produttore), Regia Henry Otto, con May Allison, King Baggot, Frank Currier,
1920: [04.00] Dangerous to Men (Produttore), Regia William C. Dowlan, con Viola Dana, Milton Sills, Edward Connelly,
1920: [04.20] Old Lady 31 (Produttore), Regia John Ince, con Emma Dunn, Henry Harmon, Clara Knott,
1920: [03.00] Alias Jimmy Valentine (Produttore), Regia Edmund Mortimer, Arthur D. Ripley, con Bert Lytell, Vola Vale, Eugene Pallette,
1920: [03.28] La Baia della Morte (Shore Acres) (Produttore), Regia Rex Ingram, con Alice Lake, Robert Walker, Edward Connelly,
1920: [02.29] The Right of Way (Produttore), Regia John Francis Dillon, con Bert Lytell, Gibson Gowland, Leatrice Joy,
1920: [02.00] The Walk-offs (Produttore), Regia Herbert Blaché, con May Allison, Emory Johnson, Effie Conley,
1920: [01.00] The Willow Tree (Produttore), Regia Henry Otto, con Viola Dana, Edward Connelly, Pell Trenton,
1919: [01.11] Stronger than Death (Produttore), Regia Herbert Blaché, Charles Bryant, con Alla Nazimova, Charles Bryant, Charles K. French,
1919: [12.28] Should a Woman Tell? (Produttore), Regia John Ince, con Alice Lake, Frank Currier, Jack Mulhall,
1919: [11.01] Fair and Warmer (Produttore), Regia Henry Otto, con May Allison, Pell Trenton, Eugene Pallette,
1919: [10.25] Please get Married (Produttore), Regia John Ince, con Viola Dana, Antrim Short, Margaret Campbell,
1919: [10.00] Lombardi, Ltd. (Produttore), Regia Jack Conway, con Bert Lytell, Alice Lake, Vera Lewis,
1919: [09.01] The Brat (Produttore), Regia Herbert Blaché, con Alla Nazimova, Charles Bryant, Amy Veness,
1919: [08.18] A Favor to a Friend (Produttore), Regia John Ince, con Emmy Wehlen, Jack Mulhall, Hugh Fay,
1919: [08.16] The Four-Flusher (Produttore), Regia Harry L. Franklin, con Hale Hamilton, Ruth Stonehouse, Harry Holden,
1919: [07.21] The Microbe (Produttore), Regia Henry Otto, con Viola Dana, Kenneth Harlan, Arthur Maude,
1919: [07.14] In His Brother's Place (Produttore), Regia Harry L. Franklin, con Hale Hamilton, Emmett King, Ruby Lafayette,
1919: [07.06] The Man who stayed at home (Produttore), Regia Herbert Blaché, con King Baggot, Claire Whitney, Robert Whittier,
1919: [06.30] The Uplifters (Produttore), Regia Herbert Blaché, con May Allison, Alfred Hollingsworth, Kathleen Kerrigan,
1919: [05.26] Full o' Pep (Produttore), Regia Harry L. Franklin, con Alice Lake, Hale Hamilton, Alice Knowland,
1919: [06.23] One-Thing-at-A-Time O'Day (Produttore), Regia John Ince, con Bert Lytell, Joseph Kilgour, Eileen Percy,
1919: [06.16] Fools and Their Money (Produttore), Regia Herbert Blaché, con Emmy Wehlen, Jack Mulhall, Emmett King,
1919: [06.09] Some Bride (Produttore), Regia Henry Otto, con Viola Dana, Irving Cummings, ,
1919: [06.02] Almost married (Produttore: (Supervisor)), Regia Charles Swickard, con May Allison, Walter I. Percival, Frank Currier,
1919: [05.04] La lanterna rossa (The red lantern) (Produttore), Regia Albert Capellani, con Alla Nazimova, Margaret McWade, Virginia Ross,
1919: [04.28] The Amateur Adventuress (Produttore), Regia Henry Otto, con Emmy Wehlen, Allan Sears, Eugene Pallette,
1919: [04.28] After His Own Heart (Produttore), Regia Harry L. Franklin, con Hale Hamilton, Naomi Childers, ,
1919: [04.21] False Evidence (Zwischentitel), Regia Edwin Carewe, con Viola Dana, Wheeler Oakman, Joe King,
1919: [04.14] Blackie's Redemption (Produttore), Regia John Ince, con Bert Lytell, Alice Lake, Henry Kolker,
1919: [04.07] The Island of Intrigue (Produttore), Regia Henry Otto, con May Allison, Jack Mower, Frederick Vroom,
1919: [03.31] The Parisian Tigress (Produttore), Regia Herbert Blaché, con Viola Dana, Darrell Foss, Henry Kolker,
1919: [03.10] Blind Man's Eyes (Produttore), Regia John Ince, con Bert Lytell, Frank Currier, Naomi Childers,
1919: [03.07] The way of the strong (Produttore), Regia Edwin Carewe, con Anna Q. Nilsson, Joe King, Harry S. Northrup,
1919: [03.03] Satan Junior (Produttore: (Supervisor)), Regia Herbert Blaché, John H. Collins, con Viola Dana, Milton Sills, Lila Leslie,
1919: [02.24] Peggy Does Her Darndest (Produttore), Regia George D. Baker, con May Allison, Frank Currier, Rosemary Theby,
1919: [02.17] Johnny-on-the-Spot (Produttore), Regia Harry L. Franklin, con Hale Hamilton, , Philo McCullough,
1919: [02.08] Out of the Fog (Produttore), Regia Albert Capellani, con Alla Nazimova, Charles Bryant, Henry Harmon,
1919: [01.20] The Divorcee (Produttore), Regia Herbert Blaché, con Ethel Barrymore, E.J. Ratcliffe, Holmes Herbert,
1919: [01.06] The Gold Cure (Produttore), Regia John H. Collins, con Viola Dana, Jack McGowan, Elsie MacLeod,
1918: [02.01] Why Germany must pay (Basato), Regia Charles Miller, con Creighton Hale, Florence Billings, Frederick Truesdell,
1918: [12.23] The Poor Rich Man (Produttore), Regia Charles Brabin, con Francis X. Bushman, Beverly Bayne, Stuart Holmes,
1918: [12.16] Sylvia on a Spree (Produttore), Regia Harry L. Franklin, con Emmy Wehlen, , Frank Currier,
1918: [01.00] The Great Victory, Wilson or The Kaiser ? (Produttore), Regia Charles Miller, con Creighton Hale, Florence Billings, ,
1918: [11.25] Five Thousand an Hour (Produttore), Regia Ralph Ince, con Hale Hamilton, Lucille Lee Stewart, ,
1918: [11.24] Eye for Eye (Produttore: presenter / supervisor ), Regia Albert Capellani, Alla Nazimova, con Alla Nazimova, Charles Bryant, Donald Gallaher,
1918: [10.14] His bonded Wife (Produttore), Regia Charles Brabin, con Emmy Wehlen, Frank Currier, Creighton Hale,
1918: [10.07] Secret Strings (Produttore), Regia John Ince, con Olive Tell, William J. Kelly, ,
1918: [09.16] Kildare of Storm (Produttore), Regia Harry L. Franklin, con Emily Stevens, King Baggot, Crauford Kent,
1918: [09.02] The Silent Woman (Produttore), Regia Herbert Blaché, con , Frank Mills, Joseph Kilgour,
1918: [08.18] Our Mrs. McChesney (Produttore), Regia Ralph Ince, con Ethel Barrymore, Wilfred Lytell, Huntley Gordon,
1918: [08.12] Flower of the Dusk (Produttore), Regia John H. Collins, con Viola Dana, Guy Coombs, Howard Hall,
1918: [08.05] The House of Mirth (Produttore), Regia Albert Capellani, con Katherine Corri Harris, Henry Kolker, Christine Mayo,
1918: [07.29] A Pair of Cupids (Produttore), Regia Charles Brabin, con Francis X. Bushman, Beverly Bayne, Charles Sutton,
1918: [07.15] A Successful Adventure (Produttore), Regia Harry L. Franklin, con May Allison, Harry Hilliard, Edward Connelly,
1918: [07.01] Opportunity (Produttore), Regia John H. Collins, con Viola Dana, Hale Hamilton, Frank Currier,
1918: [06.30] To Hell with the Kaiser (Produttore), Regia George Irving, con Lawrence Grant, Olive Tell, Betty Howe,
1918: [06.24] A Man's World (Produttore), Regia Herbert Blaché, con Emily Stevens, Lucile Dorrington, John Merkyl,
1918: [06.17] The House of Gold (Produttore), Regia Edwin Carewe, con Emmy Wehlen, Joseph Kilgour, Hugh Thompson,
1918: [06.10] Social Quicksands (Produttore), Regia Charles Brabin, con Francis X. Bushman, Beverly Bayne, ,
1918: [05.27] Pay Day (Produttore), Regia Sidney Drew, Mrs. Sidney Drew, con Sidney Drew, Mrs. Sidney Drew, Florence Short,
1918: [05.20] The Winning of Beatrice (Produttore), Regia Harry L. Franklin, con May Allison, Hale Hamilton, Frank Currier,
1918: [05.00] Toys of Fate (Produttore), Regia George D. Baker, con Alla Nazimova, Charles Bryant, Irving Cummings,
1918: [04.15] With Neatness and Dispatch (Produttore), Regia Will S. Davis, con Francis X. Bushman, Beverly Bayne, Frank Currier,
1918: [04.06] Social Hypocrites (Produttore), Regia Albert Capellani, con May Allison, , Joseph Kilgour,
1918: [03.25] Breakers Ahead (Produttore: (--??--)), Regia Charles Brabin, con Viola Dana, Clifford Bruce, Mabel Van Buren,
1918: [03.11] The Brass Check (Produttore: supervisor ), Regia Will S. Davis, con Francis X. Bushman, Beverly Bayne, Augustus Phillips,
1918: [03.04] The Shell Game (Produttore), Regia George D. Baker, con Emmy Wehlen, Henry Kolker, ,
1918: [02.04] Under Suspicion (Produttore), Regia Will S. Davis, con Francis X. Bushman, Beverly Bayne, Eva Gordon,
1918: [01.28] Her Boy (Produttore), Regia George Irving, con Effie Shannon, Niles Welch, Pauline Curley,
1918: [02.17] Revelation (Produttore), Regia George D. Baker, con Alla Nazimova, Charles Bryant, Frank Currier,
1917: [01.07] Daybreak (Produttore), Regia Albert Capellani, con Emily Stevens, Julian L'Estrange, ,
1917: [12.24] Red, White and Blue Blood (Produttore: supervising producer ), Regia Charles Brabin, con Francis X. Bushman, Beverly Bayne, ,
1917: [12.17] An American Widow (Produttore), Regia Frank Reicher, con Ethel Barrymore, Irving Cummings, H. Dudley Harvey,
1917: [12.10] Blue Jeans (Produttore: (--??--)), Regia John H. Collins, con Viola Dana, Robert Walker, Sally Crute,
1917: [12.10] Alias Mrs. Jessop (Produttore: Supervisor), Regia Will S. Davis, con Emily Stevens, Howard Hall, William H. Tooker,
1917: [11.26] The Eternal Mother (Supervisione di Produzione: (--??--)), Regia Frank Reicher, con Ethel Barrymore, Frank Mills, Jack W. Johnston,
1917: [11.12] Outwitted (Produttore), Regia George D. Baker, con Emily Stevens, Earle Foxe, Frank Currier,
1917: [11.08] Life's Whirlpool (Supervisione di Produzione: (--??--)), Regia Lionel Barrymore, con Ethel Barrymore, Paul Everton, Alan Hale,
1917: [10.29] The Adopted Son (Produttore: supervision ), Regia Charles Brabin, con Francis X. Bushman, Beverly Bayne, Leslie Stowe,
1917: [10.15] A Sleeping Memory (Produttore), Regia George D. Baker, con Emily Stevens, Frank Mills, Mario Majeroni,
1917: [09.17] Their Compact (Produttore), Regia Edwin Carewe, con Francis X. Bushman, Beverly Bayne, ,
1917: [09.10] The Lifted Veil (Supervisione di Produzione: (--??--)), Regia George D. Baker, con Ethel Barrymore, , William B. Davidson,
1917: [11.15] Draft 258 (Produttore: (--??--)), Regia Christy Cabanne, con Mabel Taliaferro, Walter Miller, ,
1917: [08.06] The Jury of Fate (Produttore: (--??--)), Regia Tod Browning, con Mabel Taliaferro, William Sherwood, Frank Fisher Bennett,
1917: [07.16] The Slacker (Produttore: (--??--)), Regia Christy Cabanne, con Emily Stevens, Walter Miller, Leo Delaney,
1917: [07.02] Peggy, the Will O' the Wisp (Produttore: (--??--)), Regia Tod Browning, con Mabel Taliaferro, Thomas J. Carrigan, William J. Gross,
1917: [06.25] Aladdin's other lamp (Produttore: (--??--)), Regia John H. Collins, con Viola Dana, Robert Walker, Augustus Phillips,
1917: [06.18] The Greatest Power (Supervisione di Produzione: (--??--)), Regia Edwin Carewe, Edward LeSaint, con Ethel Barrymore, William B. Davidson, Harry S. Northrup,
1917: [06.04] Lady Barnacle (Produttore: (--??--)), Regia John H. Collins, con Viola Dana, Robert Walker, Augustus Phillips,
1917: [04.30] The Call of Her People (Supervisione di Produzione: (/xx/)), Regia John W. Noble, con Ethel Barrymore, Robert Whittier, William B. Davidson,
1917: [04.30] The Millionaire's Double (Produttore: (/xx/)), Regia Harry Davenport, con Lionel Barrymore, Evelyn Brent, Harry S. Northrup,
1917: [04.23] God's Law and Man's (Produttore: (Supervisor)), Regia John H. Collins, con Viola Dana, Robert Walker, Augustus Phillips,
1917: [04.16] A Magdalene of the Hills (Produttore: (--??--)), Regia John W. Noble, con Mabel Taliaferro, William Garwood, Frank Montgomery,
1917: [03.12] The Mortal Sin (Produttore: (--??--)), Regia John H. Collins, con Viola Dana, Robert Walker, Augustus Phillips,
1917: [03.05] The Barricade (Produttore: (--??--)), Regia Edwin Carewe, con Mabel Taliaferro, Frank Currier, Clifford Bruce,
1917: [01.22] Threads of Fate (Supervisione di Produzione: (--??--)), Regia Eugene Nowland, con Viola Dana, Augustus Phillips, Richard Tucker,
1917: [01.06] A Wife by proxy (Produttore: (--??--)), Regia John H. Collins, con Mabel Taliaferro, Robert Walker, Sally Crute,
1916: [01.15] The White Raven (Supervisione di Produzione: (--??--)), Regia George D. Baker, con Ethel Barrymore, William B. Davidson, Walter Hitchcock,
1916: [12.18] The Awakening of Helena Richie (Supervisione di Produzione: (--??--)), Regia John W. Noble, con Ethel Barrymore, Robert Cummings, Frank Montgomery,
1916: [12.11] The Stolen Triumph (Scenaggiatore), Regia David H. Thompson, con Julius Steger, Harry Burkhardt, Clara Whipple,
1916: [11.27] The Sunbeam (Produttore: (--??--)), Regia Edwin Carewe, con Mabel Taliaferro, , Raymond McKee,
1916: [11.13] The Wager (Produttore: (--??--)), Regia George D. Baker, con Emily Stevens, Hugh Jeffrey, Lyster Chambers,
1916: [10.19] Romeo and Juliet (Produttore), Regia John W. Noble, con Francis X. Bushman, Beverly Bayne, Horace Vinton,
1916: [09.25] The Dawn of Love (Produttore: (--??--)), Regia Edwin Carewe, con Mabel Taliaferro, Robert Frazer, Leslie Stowe,
1916: [09.18] The Wheel of the Law (Produttore: (--??--)), Regia George D. Baker, con Emily Stevens, Frank Mills, Raymond McKee,
1916: [09.04] The Light of Happiness (Supervisione di Produzione: (--??--)), Regia John H. Collins, con Viola Dana, George D. Melville, Lorraine Frost,
1916: [08.07] God's Half Acre (Produttore: (--??--)), Regia Edwin Carewe, con Mabel Taliaferro, Jack W. Johnston, Helen Dahl,
1916: [06.26] The Flower of No Man's Land (Supervisione di Produzione: (/xx/)), Regia John H. Collins, con Viola Dana, Duncan McRae, Harry C. Browne,
1916: [05.01] The Snowbird (Produttore: (--??--)), Regia Edwin Carewe, con Mabel Taliaferro, Edwin Carewe, James Cruze,
1916: [04.03] The Kiss of Hate (Supervisione di Produzione: (--??--)), Regia William Nigh, con Ethel Barrymore, H. Cooper Cliffe, Robert Elliott,
1916: [03.27] Her great Price (Produttore: (--??--)), Regia Edwin Carewe, con Mabel Taliaferro, , ,
1915: [09.15] An Enemy to Society (Supervisione di Produzione: (--??--)), Regia Edgar Jones, con Hamilton Revelle, William Cowper, L.M. Horne,
1915: [07.19] The Right of Way (Produttore: (--??--)), Regia John W. Noble, con William Faversham, Jane Grey, Edward Brennan,
1915: [07.12] Marse Covington (Supervisione di Produzione), Regia Edwin Carewe, con Edward Connelly, Louise Huff, John J. Williams,
1915: [05.02] The Shooting of Dan McGrew (Supervisione di Produzione: (--??--)), Regia Alice Guy, con Edmund Breese, William A. Morse, Kathryn Adams,
1915: [03.29] Satan Sanderson (Supervisione di Produzione: (--??--)), Regia John W. Noble, con Orrin Johnson, Mabel Taliaferro, Irene Warfield,
1914: [12.14] The Three of Us (Produttore: (--??--)), Regia John W. Noble, con Mabel Taliaferro, Creighton Hale, ,

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Le informazioni di cui sopra non pretende di essere esaustivo, ma indica il livello di informazione del nostro database al momento del aggiornamento. Tutte le informazioni sono studiati per meglio delle mie conoscenze e convinzioni personali, rivendicazioni legali derivanti da informazioni errate o mancanti sono espressamente respinte. A causa della giurisprudenza attuale in alcuni paesi, una persona può essere ritenuto responsabile, che fa riferimento a indirizzi che possono avere ulteriore propagazione riferimento ad un contenuto criminale, criminali o contenuti e pagine, a meno che non comprende chiaramente da tale responsabilità. I nostri link di cui sopra sono state studiate al meglio delle mie conoscenze, ma non possiamo assumere in alcun modo per il contenuto di questi siti web qualcuno di questi collegamenti e responsabilità. Forniamo questa spiegazione, per analogia, da tutti i paesi e tutte le lingue. Salvo diversa indicazione Fremdzitate nel corso ordinario di diritto con identificazione citazione delle fonti sono inclusi. Il copyright di queste citazioni dagli autori. - Maxwell Karger - KinoTV